Other than being a delightful ode to all things circus, the Ringling Museum in Sarasota, Florida is a surpising resource for the 18th century. Not only does it have an original 1788 Vigee-Lebrun of Marie Antoinette, their collection of fans is spectacular. Take, for instance, this trio from the 1750s.
The left (1) is French and features figures on a landscape. It’s a pretty example of watercolored leaf paper over ivory sticks. The predominant design is lace on a black backdrop, black being an unsual color for the time except when used in mourning. I don’t, however, believe it’s a mourning fan as it was not specified as such at the museum. If my recollection is correct, full mourning fans would have been made of black crepe during this period with half-mourning allowing white and/or dull colors to grace the garments and accessories.
The middle fan (2) is also French and shows a fête au jardin or garden party. I have a close-up photo below because it’s very busy. The sticks in particular are incredible. Like the previous fan, the medium is watercolor on paper leaf, but it’s made with mother-of-pearl sticks in addition to ivory.
Unlike the first two, the bright red fan on the right is Dutch. The technique is gouache on paper leaf. This technique is similar to watercolor except with a higher pigment to water ratio and a chalk-like substance added to the mix. This creates opacity and a high degree of reflection, making the colors stunning. The ivory sticks aren’t quite as decorative as fan 2, but the village scene therein is precious.
The additional fans are closed and therefore not very interesting. So then, the Marie Antoinette Vigee-Lebrun. As a side note, did MA actually read? I’m not so sure!